Document Type : Review Article


1 PhD in Jurisprudence and Fundamentals of Islamic Law, University of Tehran, Iran.

2 PhD Student of International Relations, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


The issue of human rights has been at the center of the world community for seventy years, since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Although it is difficult to define the concept of human rights, researchers believe that this concept can be extracted from those rules and norms that have initially been recognized by the majority of UN members in the form of declarations, statements, treaties, conventions, and Performance of Opinio Juris, and second, affect the behavior and conduct of political entities. The current study investigates the definition of human rights after the events of September 11, 2001. This review article argues that the concept of human rights was initially a general concept, but it evolved over time into specialized areas, such that in the third millennium and after September 11, 2021, security-related human rights issues have become more important than before, and different groups and minorities received more special attention. On the other hand, environmental and health-related human rights issues have emerged as compelling issues of the present, which have further broadened the scope of human rights.


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