Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of Political Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 PhD Student of Political Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

By withdrawing from Afghanistan, the Soviet Union collapsed and the Cold War ended in
the 1990s. Throughout that decade, western governments forgot the people of Afghanistan.
But the 1998 attack on the U.S. interests in Africa and al-Qaeda attacks of the September 11,
2001 reintroduced the foreign aggression of the Western governments’ coalition against
Afghanistan. In the late 2001, NATO countries led by the United States brought down the
Taliban regime. Concomitantly, the UN conducted a conference in Bonn, Germany in which
political and paramilitary groups agreed to form an inclusive government without presence
of the Taliban. The Bonn Agreement contents show that most of its principles are based on
the doctrine of Liberal Democracy. Accordingly, in most of the ratified articles of the Eighth
Constitution of Afghanistan the doctrine of liberal democracy is reflected. In a country
where many political regimes and systems were experienced, the effectiveness of Liberal
Democracy doctrine was expected. Meanwhile, Liberal Democracy faced challenges and
nation-state building development process witnessed deficiencies. The present paper uses
systemic analysis of the liberal nation-state (system input, policy design, policy
implementation, evaluation and outcome) to respond the research question. The question is,
how have the nation-state building process and political development in Afghanistan been
affected by the Bonn Agreement and liberal democracy doctrine? And has that led to the
deficiencies in nation-state building and political development in the country?
Hypothetically, nation-state building and political development in Afghanistan based on the
Bonn Agreement suffered from deficiencies due to the following reasons: disregarding the
historical-traditional contexts of Afghanistan, the weak presence of liberal democrats in
power, disregard for the demands of the fragmented society, the continuation of nationalist
policies, and the incorrect public-private divide in the liberal structure of democracy.

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